Mustafa Kemal Atatürk'ün Hayatı İngilizce
Atatürk's Life (Atatürk'ün Hayatı)
Ataturk was born in 1881 (probably in the spring) in Salonica, then an Ottoman city, now in Greece. His father Ali Riza, a customs official turned lumber merchant, died when Mustafa was still a boy. His mother Zubeyde, a devout and strong-willed woman, raised him and his sister. First enrolled in a traditional religious school, he soon switched to a modern school. In 1893, he entered a military high school where his mathematics teacher gave him the second name Kemal (meaning perfection) in recognition of young Mustafa's superior achievement. He was thereafter known as Mustafa Kemal.
In 1905, Mustafa Kemal graduated from the War Academy in Istanbul with the rank of Staff Captain. Posted in Damascus, he started with several colleagues, a clandestine society called "Homeland and Freedom" to fight against the Sultan's despotism. In 1908 he helped the group of officers who toppled the Sultan. Mustafa Kemal's career flourished as he won his heroism in the far corners of the Ottoman Empire, including Albania and Tripoli. He also briefly served as a staff officer in Salonica and Istanbul and as a military attache in Sofia.
In 1915, when Dardanelles campaign was launched, Colonel Mustafa Kemal became a national hero by winning successive victories and finally repelling the invaders. Promoted to general in 1916, at age 35, he liberated two major provinces in eastern Turkey that year. In the next two years, he served as commander of several Ottoman armies in Palestine, Aleppo, and elsewhere, achieving another major victory by stopping the enemy advance at Aleppo.
On May 19, 1919, Mustafa Kemal Pasha landed in the Black Sea port of Samsun to start the War of Independence. In defiance of the Sultan's government, he rallied a liberation army in Anatolia and convened the Congress of Erzurum and Sivas which established the basis for the new national effort under his leadership. On April 23, 1920, the Grand National Assembly was inaugurated. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was elected to its Presidency.
Fighting on many fronts, he led his forces to victory against rebels and invading armies. Following the Turkish triumph at the two major battles at Inonu in Western Turkey, the Grand National Assembly conferred on Mustafa Kemal Pasha the title of Commander-in-Chief with the rank of Marshal. At the end of August 1922, the Turkish armies won their ultimate victory. Within a few weeks, the Turkish mainland was completely liberated, the armistice signed, and the rule of the Ottoman dynasty abolished.
In July 1923, the national government signed the Lausanne Treaty with Great Britain, France, Greece, Italy, and others. In mid-October, Ankara became the capital of the new Turkish State. On October 29, the Republic was proclaimed and Mustafa Kemal Pasha was unanimously elected President of the Republic.
Atatürk married Latife Usakligil in early 1923. The marriage ended in divorce in 1925.
The account of Atatürk's fifteen year Presidency is a saga of dramatic modernization. With indefatigable determination, he created a new political and legal system, abolished the Caliphate and made both government and education secular, gave equal rights to women, changed the alphabet and the attire, and advanced the arts and the sciences, agriculture and industry.
In 1934, when the surname law was adopted, the national parliament gave him the name "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks).
On November 10, 1938, following an illness of a few months, the national liberator and the Father of modern Turkey died. But his legacy to his people and to the world endures.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 - 1938) was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal was born in 1881 in Salonika (Selanik, today in Greece, then under the Ottoman rule). His father's name was Ali Riza Efendi. His father was customs official.
His mother's name was Zübeyde Hanim. For his primary education, he went to the school of Semsi Efendi in Salonika. But Mustafa lost his father at an early age, he had to leave school. Mustafa and his mother went to live with his uncle in the countryside. His mother brought him up. Life continued like this for a time. Mustafa worked on the farm but his mother began to worry about his lack of schooling. It was finally decided that he should live with his mother's sister in Salonika.
He entered the Military Middle School in Salonika. In 1895, after finishing the Military Middle School, Mustafa Kemal entered the Military High School (Askeri Idadisi ) in Manastir.
After successfully completing his studies at the Manastir Military School, Mustafa Kemal went to Istanbul and on the 13th of March 1899 he entered the infantry class of the Military Academy (Harbiye Harp Okulu). After finishing the Military Academy, Mustafa Kemal went on to the General Staff College in 1902. He was graduated from the Academy with the rank of captain on the 11th of January, 1905.
In 1906, he was sent to Damascus (Sam). Mustafa Kemal and his friends founded a society which they called "Vatan ve Hürriyet" (Fatherland and Freedom) in Damascus. On his own initiative, he went to Tripoli during the war with Italy in 1911 and took part in the defense of Derne and Tobruk. While he was still in Libya, the Balkan War broke out. He served in the Balkan War as a successful Commander (1912-1914). At the end of the Balkan War, Mustafa Kemal was appointed military attache in Sofia.
When Mustafa Kemal was in Sofia, the First World War broke out. He was made Commander of the Anafartalar Group on 8th of August, 1915. In the First World War he was in command of the Turkish forces at Anafartalar at a critical moment. This was when the Allied landings in the Dardanelles (Çanakkale Bogazi) took place and he personally saved the situation in Gallipoli. During the battle, Mustafa Kemal was hit by shrapnel above the heart, but a watch in his breast pocket saved his life. Mustafa Kemal explained his state of mind as he accepted this great responsibility: "Indeed, it was not easy to shoulder such responsibility, but as I had decided not to live to see my country's destruction, I accepted it proudly". He then served in the Caucasus and in Syria and just before the armistice in 1918 he was placed in command of the Lightning Army group in Syria. After the armistice (peace agreement), he returned to Istanbul.
After the Armistice of Mondoros, the countries that had signed the agreement did not consider it necessary to abide by its terms. Under various pretexts the navies and the armies of the Entente (France, Britain and Italy) were in Istanbul, while the province of Adana had been occupied by the French, and Urfa and Maras by the British. There were Italian soldiers in Antalya and Konya, and British soldiers in Merzifon and Samsun. There were foreign officers, officials and agents almost everywhere in the country.
On the 15th of May 1919 the Greek Army landed in Izmir with the agreement of the Entente. Under difficult conditions, Mustafa Kemal decided to go to Anatolia. On 16th of May 1919, he left Istanbul in a small boat called the "Bandirma". Mustafa Kemal was warned that his enemies had planned to sink his ship on the way out, but he was not afraid and on Monday19th May 1919, he arrived in Samsun and set foot on Anatolian soil. That date marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence. It is also the date that Mustafa Kemal later chose as his own birthday. A wave of national resistance arose in Anatolia. A movement had already begun in Erzurum in the east and Mustafa Kemal quickly placed himself at the head of the whole organization. The congresses in Erzurum and Sivas in the Summer of 1919 declared the national aims by a national pact.
When the foreign armies occupied Istanbul, on 23th of April 1920 Mustafa Kemal opened the Turkish Grand National Assembly and hence established a provisional new government, the centre of which was to be Ankara. On the same day Mustafa Kemal was elected President of the Grand National Assembly. The Greeks, profiting by the rebellion of Çerkez Ethem and acting in collaboration with him, started to advance towards Bursa and Eskisehir. On the 10th of January 1921, the enemy forces were heavily defeated by the Commander of the Western Front, colonel Ismet and his troops. On the 10th of July 1921, the Greeks launched a frontal attack with five divisions on Sakarya. After the great battle of Sakarya, which continued without interruption from the 23rd of August to the 13th of September, the Greek Army was defeated and had to retreat. After the battle, the Grand National Assembly gave Mustafa Kemal the titles of Ghazi and Marshal. Mustafa Kemal decided to drive the enemies out of his country and he gave the order that the attack should be launched on the morning of the 26th of August 1922. The bulk of the enemy forces were surrounded and killed or captured on the 30th of August at Dumlupinar.
The enemy Commander-in-Chief, General Trikupis, was captured. Or the 9th of September 1922 the fleeing enemy forces were driven into the sea near Izmir. The Turkish forces, under the extraordinary military skills of Kemal Atatürk, fought a War of Independence against the occupying Allied powers and won victories on every front all over the country.
On the 24th of July 1923, with the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne, the independence of the new Turkish State was recognized by all countries. Mustafa Kemal built up a new, sturdy, vigorous state. On the 29th of October 1923, he declared the new Turkish Republic. Following the declaration of the Republic he started to his radical reforms to modernize the country. Mustafa Kemal was elected the first President of the Republic of Turkey.
Atatürk made frequent tours of the country. While visiting Gemlik and Bursa, Atatürk caught a chill. He returned to Istanbul to be treated and to rest, but, unfortunately Atatürk was seriously ill. At 9.05 AM on the 10th of November 1938, Atatürk died, but he attained immortality in the eyes of his people. Since the moment of his death, his beloved name and memory have been engraved on the hearts of his people. As a commander he had been the victorious of many battles, as a leader he had influenced the masses, as a statesman he had led a successful administration, and as a revolutionary he had striven to alter the social, cultural, economic, political and legal structure of society at its roots. He was one of the most eminent personalities in the history of the world, history will count him among the most glorious sons of the Turkish nation and one of the greatest leaders of mankind.
EVENTS IN Atatürk'S LIFE IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER
Mustafa born in Salonika.
Mustafa enters the Military Preparatory School in Salonika and is given the second name "Kemal" by his teacher.
Mustafa Kemal enters the Military High School at Manastir.
Mustafa Kemal enters the infantry class of the Military Academy in Istanbul.
Mustafa Kemal graduates from the Military Academy and goes on to the General Staff College.
January 11, 1905
Mustafa Kemal graduates from the General Staff College with the rank of Staff Captain and is posted to the Fifth Army, based in Damascus.
Mustafa Kemal and his friends from the secret society "Fatherland and Freedom" in Damascus.
Mustafa Kemal transferred to Third Army and goes to Salonika.
September 13, 1911
Mustafa Kemal transferred to General Staff in Istanbul.
January 9, 1912
Mustafa Kemal successfully leads the Tobruk offensive in Libya.
November 25, 1912
Mustafa Kemal appointed Director of Operations, Mediterranean Straits Special Forces.
October 27, 1913
Mustafa Kemal appointed Military Attache in Sofia.
April 25, 1915
Allies land at Ariburnu (Gallipoli) and Mustafa Kemal stops their progress with his division.
August 9, 1915
Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander of Anafartalar Group.
April 1, 1916
Mustafa Kemal promoted to Brigadier-General.
August 6-7, 1916
Mustafa Kemal takes Bitlis and Mus back from the enemy.
October 31, 1918
Mustafa Kemal becomes Commander of Lightning Group of Armies.
April 30, 1919
Mustafa Kemal appointed Inspector of 9th Army based in Erzurum with wide powers.
May 16, 1919
Mustafa Kemal leaves Istanbul.
May 19, 1919
Mustafa Kemal lands in Samsun. This date was recorded as the start of War of Independence.
July 8, 1919
Mustafa Kemal resigns from the post of Inspector of 3rd Army and from the army.
July 23, 1919
Mustafa Kemal elected Chairman of Erzurum Congress.
September 4, 1919
Mustafa Kemal elected Chairman of Sivas Congress.
December 27, 1919
Mustafa Kemal arrives in Ankara with the Excutive Committee.
April 23, 1920
Mustafa Kemal opens the Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara.
May 11, 1920
Mustafa Kemal is condemned to death by the government in Istanbul.
August 5, 1921
Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander-in-Chief by the Grand National Assembly.
August 23, 1921
The battle of Sakarya begins with Turkish troops led by Mustafa Kemal.
September 19, 1921
The Grand National Assembly gives Mustafa Kemal the rank of Marshal and the title Gazi.
August 26, 1922
Gazi Mustafa Kemal begins to lead the Great Offensive from the hill of Kocatepe.
August 30, 1922
Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha wins the battle of Dumlupinar.
September 10, 1922
Gazi Mustafa Kemal enters Izmir.
November 1, 1922
The Grand National Assembly accepts Gazi Mustafa Kemal's proposal to abolish the Sultanate.
January 14, 1923
Mustafa Kemal's mother Zübeyde Hanim dies in Izmir.
October 29, 1923
Proclamation of the Turkish Republic and Gazi Mustafa Kemal is elected as the first President.
August 24, 1924
Gazi Mustafa Kemal wears a hat for the first time at Sarayburnu in Istanbul.
August 9, 1928
Gazi Mustafa Kemal speaks at Sarayburnu on the new Turkish Alphabet.
April 12, 1931
Gazi Mustafa Kemal founds the Turkish Historical Society.
July 12, 1932
Gazi Mustafa Kemal founds the Turkish Linguistic Society.
June 16, 1934
The Grand National Assembly passes a law granting Gazi Mustafa Kemal the surname "Atatürk".
November 10, 1938
Atatürk dies at 09:05 in Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul