Filatelik taklit ve sahtekarlıklar
deyimi Posta pulu
görünümü verilmiş ama posta pulu olmayan etiketler için kullanılır, bunlar genellikle kandırmak ve dolandırmak amacı ile üretilirler. Gerçekleri ile taklit/sahte olanları ayırmak filatelinin uzmanlık isteyen bir dalıdır. To a large extent the definitions below are consistent with those given in the introduction to various recent editions of the Scott Standard Postage Stamp Catalogue
. "We use the term "forgery"
to indicate stamps produced to defraud collectors (properly known as forgeries) and to defraud stamp-issuing governments (properly known as counterfeits). "Fake"
is used to indicate the alteration of a genuine stamp to make it appear as something else.
might refer to cancels, overprints, added or clipped perforations, stamp design alterations, etc."
[Tom Horn, "Beware of Problem Areas", in American Philatelist vol. 118, No. 1, p. 60, January 2004]
Although some philatelists stick to precise definitions of these terms, one should not assume that this is the case with every writer. Questions are often raised about when a stamp is legitimately produced for postage. The following quotation may be helpful: } Filatelik taklit ve sahtekarlıkların Tarihçesi The first postage stamp was issued in Great Britain in 1840, and twenty years later, the first postage stamp forgery -- in the sense of a stamp created to fool philatelists into thinking that it is a genuine one -- appeared on the market. Jean de Sperati
is among the master forgers in the history of philately. The Vancouver Island forgery
refers to a stamp that was originally issued in 1865. To produce his forgery, de Sperati bleached a real, cheaper stamp of the same vintage. He then used a process called photolithography
to make an almost perfect copy of the stamp. In his lifetime, Jean de Sperati forged over 500 stamps. He sometimes signed his work in pencil on the back. His forged stamps are now often worth more than the originals.
["Postal Imposters" in Detecting the Truth: ]
Fakes, Forgeries and Trickery, a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada
Alt gruplar Stamp-like objects, not all of which are really fakes and forgeries, are described below for the sake of developing a better understanding of such claims.
Posta amaçlı Kalp Pullar
Those who produce counterfeits appeal to a very different market than philatelists. They depend on their stamps being produced in large quantities in order to be able to recover their investment. The person who would use them must feel that he can purchase them for a price that is significantly lower than what he would pay at a legitimate post office. This makes the most common current stamp used for everyday mailing a prime target for counterfeiting activity. There is little or nothing to distinguish between a philatelic and postal forgery by merely looking at them. The techniques utilized in producing them are identical. A helpful distinction may be to have one of these stamps on an envelope that actually went through the mail, but that too requires caution. Counterfeits that reach the philatelic community are fairly scarce, and that alone makes them more valuable. There is more than enough incentive for an unscrupulous individual to fake a counterfeit usage by applying a philatelic forgery to an envelope!
Filatelik Kalp Pullar
Unlike counterfeits these are very common in collections. Many that were produced in the earliest days of stamp collecting in the 19th century are still plentiful. At that time many considered it quite acceptable to fill a space in an album with a facsimile when the genuine stamp was unavailable. One should not be lulled into a sense of security by believing that only the most valuable stamps have been forged; by also forging the cheap common stamps in a set a forger can give a uniform look to his set. The 1893 Navigation and Commerce issue for the French colonies is a good example of all values of a set being forged. Knowledge is an important tool in helping to detect forgeries. A person who is able to identify some of the most obvious forgeries can save a lot of money in expertising fees, though the information may not yet be enough to establish that a stamp is genuine. Earee's Album Weeds
, and Serrane's Vade Mecum
are only two books in the vast literature about stamp forgeries.
Official reprints of stamps that are no longer postally valid are usually produced by governments to meet a philatelic demand. Scott numbers 3 and 4 of the United States were produced in this way. This also happened with several early sets of the Peoples' Republic of China.
Remainders are surplus stocks of legitimate postage stamps that have been put into the philatelic market after being demonetized. Among these are the later stamps of Nova Scotia, before it became a province of Canada, and the German inflationary period stamps. One effect of distributing large quantities of remaindered stamps to the public is that postally used stamps can be much more valuable than mint ones.
Bogus stamps purport to be produced by an entity that exists and could have produced them, but didn't. Unlike forgeries they do not even resemble anything that the entity did produce, and only rarely are any of these labels ever shipped to the place that is shown as issuing them. They are generally issued to deceive collectors. Among these are the issues for South Moluccas
and the uninhabited Scottish island of Staffa
. The 1923 famine relief stamps of Azerbaijan were bogus, but these too were also subsequently forged.
[L. N. and M. Williams, Cinderella Stamps, London, Heinemann, 1970, p. 81.]
Fantasies claim to be issued by places that don't even exist. One of the most famous of these were "King" Charles-Marie David de Mayríéna
's for Sedang
[ibid. , p. 2.]
The stamps of New Atlantis required the construction of a bamboo raft that would be floated in the Atlantic as the country.
[ibid. p. 109.]
Yerel pullar Local stamps
are usually intended to serve a local purpose, and are not necessarily fraudulent. Thus we have in relation to the Great Britain: "... there were two local entities that 'performed much in the way of postal service ... Herm
.' Those two, it would seem, are considered thoroughly legitimate."
[Richard M. Langworth, "Herm and Its Locals", American Philatelist, Vol. 95., No. 11, Nov. 1981, p. 1009]
The legitimacy arises from the fact that these islands did not have official post offices, and a private service needed to be established to transport mail to the mainland. More often, however, a person should be wary of local issues which find a market with tourists and unwary collectors.
Hükümet ve propaganda taklitleri
Governments, especially during war time, occasionally forge the stamps of their enemies. Thus during World War II the allies forged the Hitler head stamp for the current domestic first class mail rate so that their operatives behind German lines could have them to mail letters without supporting the German government by buying its stamps. The Germans produced a propaganda issue of the then current stamp of King George VI with a Star of David substituted for the cross on top of the crown and a sickle substituted for the "D" in the value tablet.
Cinderellas is a broad term for just about anything that looks like a postage stamp but isn't. While the term includes bogus stamps and fantasies it also includes many fund raising labels, Christmas seals and other stickers that were produced for perfectly legitimate purposes.
begin with a genuine stamp and alter it in some way to make it more valuable to stamp collectors. When catalogues show different varieties with significantly different values that can be great motivation to alter the cheap example into something that can be sold for great profit. ==MetotlarKomple Sahte Pullar This is the most obvious way of producing forgeries, and as such is self-evident. The forger starts from scratch, and completely re-engraves the plate. It is virtually impossible to produce a new engraving that will be identical to the original. Thus, in the earliest set of Hong Kong stamps the forgeries can be distinguished by counting the number of shading lines in the background. Some early Japanese forgeries are distinguished by remembering that the chrysanthemum crest in the stamp should always
have 16 petals. Modern electronic techniques would appear to make things easier for the forger, but understanding how different printing methods work can be very helpful in discovering these forgeries.
One would imagine that overprints should be easier for a forger to falsify. It is just a simple matter of applying a few letters to a stamp with black ink? Paying attention to detail can reward a philatelic sleuth. The stamps of Bangkok from the 1880s were produced by overprinting each stamp a single letter "B" on stamps of the Straits Settlements. Some of these overprints are bogus because they are on underlying stamps that were never known to have been issued with that overprint. Forgeries can be discovered by examining the relative heights of the two loops of the B.
[Robson Lowe, The Encyclopí¦dia of British Empire Postage Stamps, 1775-1950, London, Robson Lowe Ltd., 1951, pp. 380-1]
In another example the 1948 Gandhi stamps of India were overprinted with the single word "SERVICE" to produce a stamp for official government use. The key to knowing the difference between the two is based on recognizing the difference between a typographed and a lithographed overprint. The former will leave an impression in the paper which can be detected by looking at the back of the stamp.
Yeniden Dantel Açma
In some cases a valuable and a common variety of a stamp differ only by the presence or size of the perforations. Thus perforations are cut off to make a stamp appear imperforate, or new perforations are carefully cut into the stamp. When considering this possibility it is important to consider whether the stamp has been made smaller than it should be, or whether the perforations come together at the corners as they should with a comb or harrow perforated stamp.
Yeniden Zamklama (Regume Pullar)
Although this is controversial, many collectors believe that a mint stamp is more valuable when the gum has been undisturbed. There are many fakers who are happy to accommodate them so that they can receive a premium price for a mint-never-hinged stamp. Not all expertisers are willing to give an opinion on this kind of fakery. If you suspect that a stamp has been regummed look to see if the gum has the right colour. Some stamps should have scoringlines which seem to be defects, but are really there to prevent the sheet of stamps from curling. Examine the perforations closely; genuine gum is normally put on stamps before they are perforated so that gum that flows into the perforations may be a sign of being faked. There are situations where the original gum should
have been washed off; bright fresh gum on the 1933 WIPA souvenir sheet of Austria would probably be false since the acidic nature of the original gum would cause the paper to deteriorate.
In some cases the value of a damaged stamp can be enhanced by repairing the damage. This is also considered faking. Sometimes this can be detected by making sure that the right kind of paper is on the back of the stamp, or by putting the stamp in watermark fluid.
The colour of a stamp can be changed by exposing the stamp to various chemicals, or by leaving it out in bright sunlight. Carefully applied chemicals can also be used to removed specific colours to produce "rare" missing colour varieties.
For a beginner it is self-evident that a bright new unused postage stamp is worth more than one that has been soiled by a cancellation. This is not always true. There are many instances of stamps that have been produced in large quantities, but where comparatively very small numbers have done postage service. Huge quantities of mint stamps can be left over after a bout of inflation, a political overthrow or loss of a war. In some cases a forged stamp can have a fake overprint applied to help build the aura of being genuine. To identify these fakes it is important to understand the postmarks that were in use at the time, and to make sure that the date is consistent with proper usage, or that the cancelling post office existed during the time the stamp was in proper use. It is also important to know that not all cancellations are postal. Some countries have inscribed their stamps "Postage and Revenue". Some very high face values on such stamps could not reasonably have been used for postage, thus making any kind of proper postal usage exceedingly rare. More commonly these high face values were for fiscal usages to indicate the payment of taxes on real estate or corporate shares. While such cancellations are not fakes, they can easily be misrepresented to the unwary as the more valuable postal cancellations. Rainer Blüm
was sentenced recently in a high-profile German legal case for forgery of postmarks to increase the value of stamps.
İstek Üzerine Damgalama ing. Cancelled To Order-C.T.O
Technically "C.T.O."s are not fakes since they have been cancelled by the stamp issuing authority. Many of these are easily identified because while they have been postmarked they still retain their original gum. Some postal authorities cancel them and sell them at a considerable discount to the philatelic community. The authorities can do that profitably because they no longer need to provide the postal services that the stamps were meant to pay for. Serious collectors are more interested in stamps that have been postally used, and the corresponding postally used stamp will often be worth more than a mint stamp. Authorities who do this tend to use the same canceller for all C.T.O.s, and apply it very neatly in the corner of four stamps at one time. ==Referanslar:Footnotes } ;Sources *Werner M. Bohne, "Caveat Emptor: Detecting German Forgeries", in American Philatelist
, Vol. 96, No. 12, December 1982, pp. 1097-1103. Includes detection techniques. *Robert Brisco Earíée, Album Weeds; or, How to Detect Forged Stamps
, 2nd edition, London, Stanley Gibbons, 1892. A classic for identifying early forgeries; has been reprinted many times. *Stephen G. Esrati, "When Expertzers Disagree", in American Philatelist
, Vol. 96, No. 5, May 1982, pp. 439-443, 467. Even the experts can be wrong. *Fernand Serrane, Vade-mecum du spíécialiste-expert en timbres-poste
, in two volumes: vol.1, "Europe", Nice, Imprimerie de l'í‰claireur, 1927; vol.2, "Hors d'Europe", Bergerac, Imprimerie gíéníérale du sud-ouest, 1929. A translation of this was serialized in the American Philatelist
in the 1990s Linkler == * Detecting the Truth:
Fakes, Forgeries and Trickery
. Library and Archives Canada.