Lubbock

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Lubbock Haritası

çalışma var Amerikan kenti |official_name = Lubbock, Texas |nickname = Hub city |image_skyline = Downtown_Lubbock_from_I-27_2005-09-10.jpeg |image_flag = Flag of Lubbock, Texas.png |image_seal = Lubbock_tx_city_logo.png |image_map = TXMap-doton-Lubbock.PNG |map_caption = Teksas eyaletindeki yeri |subdivision_name = Lubbock County |leader_name = Vali David Miller |area_total = 297,6 |area_land = 297,4 |area_water = 0,3 |population_as_of = 2004 |population_total = 257663 |population_metro = 209737 |population_density = 704,7 |timezone = CST |utc_offset = -6 |timezone_DST = CDT |utc_offset_DST = -5 |latd = 33 |latm = 33 |lats = 53 |latNS = N |longd = 101 |longm = 52 |longs = 40 |longEW = W |elevation =992,4 |website = www.ci.lubbock.tx.us |footnotes = | Lubbock Teksas eyaletinin 11inci büyük şehridir. Kuzeybatı Teksas`ta tarihi Llano Estacado bölgesinde bulunur. Şehir nüfusu 2005 nüfus sayımlarına göre yaklaşık olarak 209,737 idi. Buna rağmen dış kesimlerle birlikte nüfus 257,663`ü bulur.

Lubbock`ın takma adı "Göbekteki şehir"dir ve bu ismi South Plains (güney ovaları) adı verilen bölgede ekonomi,eğitim ve sağlık hizmetlerinin üst düzeyde bir araya getiren yer olmasıyla hak eder. Arazi dünyadaki en geniş bitişik pamuk yetiştirilen alan olma özelliğini taşır ve bu amaçla yapılan tarım tamamen Ogallala Sutaşıma sistemi ile sulamaya bağımlıdır.

Lubbock Türkçede ``Labık`` diye söylenir.

Tarihi

Lubbock bölgesi adını 1876 yılında,bir Amerika Konfederasyonu albayı ve Teksas Rangers Grubunun da kurucusu olan Thomas Saltus Lubbocktan almaktadır .1884 yılında , Yellowhouse Kanyonunda Lubbock adında bir federal postahane mevcut idi . Buna rağmen , Lubbock kasabası 1890 yılında iki daha ufak kasaba olan "Old Lubbock" ve Monterey arasında yapılan özel bir birleşme anlaşmasına kadar ortaya çıkmamıştı .

1891 yılında Lubbock ilçe merkezi oldu ve 1909 yılında ise bir şehir olma ünvanına erişti.

Teksas Teknoloji Koleji (şimdi Texas Tech Üniversitesi) ise 1923 yılında kuruldu. Tıp fakültesi ise (Texas Tech Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Merkezi) 1970 yılında okul bünyesine eklendi. 1951 ağustos ayında , v-şeklinde dizilmiş ışıklar şehrin üzerinde görüldü."Lubbock Lights" adı altında anılan bu olay her zaman en büyük UFO vakalarından birisi olarak yer aldı. Bu olayın gerçekliği konusunda şüpheler olsa da bir çok saygıdeğer Teksas Tech. Üniversitesi profesörleri tarafından da olaya şahit olunması ve bir öğrenci tarafından da fotoğraflanması bu şüpheleri boş çıkarmaktadır. Fotoğraflar ülke çapında basılarak yayılarak gazetelerde ve Life dergisinde yer aldı. A.B.D. Hava Kuvvetlerinin UFOlarla ilgili resmi çalışma belgesi olan Project Blue Book da bu konuda geniş bir inceleme yapmıştır. Daha sonra bu konuda bir çok iddia ve yalanlama ortaya atıldı ve olay bir sır olarak tarihteki yerini aldı.

Lubbock Christian University 1957 yılında açıldı.

Mayıs 11, 1970 de Lubbock Tornado tayfunu şehri sarsarak 26 kişinini ölümüne ve 125 milyon dolarlık zarar yol açtı . Şehir merkezindeki NTS Kulesi ki o tarihten sonra Great Plains Yaşam binası olarak bilinir, 271 feet yüksekliktedir ve tarih boyunca bir F-5 tipi hortumdan sağlam çıkan en uzun bina olarak bilinir.[1]

Coğrafya ve İklim

Denizden yükseklik ortalama 3,256 feet`dir.

A.B.D. İstatistik dairesine göre şehrin toplam alanı 297.6 km²`dir (114.9 mi²). Bu alanın 297.4 km²`si (114.8 mi²) kara ve 0.3 km²`si (0.1 mi²) (0.09%) ise sularla kaplıdır.

Lubbock`da ılıman,rüzgarlı,yarı-kurak bir iklim hüküm sürer ve yağışsız mevsimlerde kum fırtınaları görmek mümkündür. [2] Ortalama olarak , Lubbock çoğunluğu yazın ortaya çıkan tayfunlarda olmak üzere senede 18.7 inç (475 mm) yağmur alır. Lubbock`da yazlar sıcaktır , düşük nem oranına sahiptir ancak bazen Meksika Körfezinden rüzgarlarla nemli hava taşınabilir. Haziran, temmuz ve ağustosta ortalama sıcaklık 32 derece celciusun üzerindedir. 38°C nin üstüne de sıkça rastlanır ve ölçülen rekor sıcaklık 1994 yılında 114°F olmuştur.[3]Winter days in Lubbock are typically sunny and relatively mild, but nights are cold, and temperatures below freezing are not uncommon. Winter winds can make cold weather a lot more uncomfortable. The average annual snowfall is 9.6 inches (244 mm).

Law and government

Lubbock has a council-manager government system, with all governmental powers resting in a legislative body called a commission. The current mayor of Lubbock, elected May 13, 2006, is David Miller.

Lubbock County and the City of Lubbock have an unusual legal situation regarding the sale of alcoholic beverages. The county allows package sales but not "by the drink" sales except at private institutions such as country clubs. Inside the Lubbock city limits, the situation is reversed with restaurants and bars able to serve alcohol but liquor stores forbidden. Lubbock remained legally dry until an election on April 9, 1972, made liquor by the drink, but not package sales, legal, and Lubbock abandoned its distinction as the largest dry city in the country. A privately owned conglomeration of liquor stores (the "strip") is located just outside of the city limit on U.S. Highway 87.

On November 21, 2006, the Lubbock City Council voted 5-1 to annex "the strip", making package alcohol sales legal within the city limits. There exist, however, significant barriers to entry for stores outside "the strip" area to sell packaged alcohol. The new annexation will contribute a sales tax of 1.5%, or 10 cents for every 7 dollars, to the city. Due to state law, liquor sales will be limited to the newly annexed area.

Lubbock police officers residing in the city enjoy an unusual privilege among municipal law enforcement agencies: they are not only authorized a personal patrol vehicle (common in rural areas where law enforcement is decentrailzed), but moreover, they are encouraged to drive the vehicle while off duty and conducting personal business. This has been a matter of controversy not only considering the cost to the taxpayers of fuel and maintenance, but additionally the questionably professional, and even perilous, nature of traffic stops conducted by off-duty officers wearing casual street clothing without clear police identification.

Ekonomi

Lubbock`s area is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world and is heavily dependent on irrigation water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer.Fact|date=February 2007 Unfortunately, the water is being depleted at a rate which is not sustainable for the long term. Much progress has been made in the area of water conservation and new technologies such as Low Energy Precision Application (LEPA) irrigation were originally developed in the Lubbock area.

The ten largest employers in terms of the number of employees are: Texas Tech University, Covenant Health Systems, Lubbock Independent School District, University Medical Center, United Supermarkets, City of Lubbock, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Cingular, Convergys, and Lubbock County.

Lubbock has one shopping mall, South Plains Mall, which includes two Dillard`s, Mervyn`s, JC Penney, Sears, and Beall`s.

As of March 2007, there are 4 Walmart Supercenters in the city, with two being recently completed.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 199,564 people, 77,527 households, and 48,531 families residing in the city. The population density was 671.1/km² (1,738.2/mi²). There were 84,066 housing units at an average density of 282.7/km² (732.2/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 72.87% White, 8.66% African American, 0.56% Native American, 1.54% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 14.32% from other races, and 2.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.45% of the population.

There are 77,527 households, of which 30.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.4% are classified as non-families by the United States Census Bureau. Of 77,527 households, 3,249 are unmarried partner households: 2,802 heterosexual, 196 same-sex male, and 251 same-sex female households. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 17.9% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,844, and the median income for a family was $41,418. Males had a median income of $30,222 versus $21,708 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,511. About 12.0% of families and 18.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.9% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over.

People and culture

Lubbock is the birthplace of Rock and Roll legend Buddy Holly, and the city hosts both a cultural center and annual music festival named for him.

The city has also been the birthplace or home of several country musicians including Jimmie Dale Gilmore, Butch Hancock, and Joe Ely (collectively known as The Flatlanders), Mac Davis, Terry Allen, Lloyd Maines and his daughter, Natalie Maines (singer for the Dixie Chicks), and Pat Green, a graduate of Texas Tech University.

Lubbock also hosts the National Cowboy Symposium and Celebration, an annual event celebrating the prototypical Old West cowboy. The event is held in September and features art, music, cowboy poetry, stories, and the presentation of scholarly papers on cowboy culture and the history of the American West. A chuckwagon cookoff and horse parade also take place during the event.

Every year on July 4, Lubbock hosts the 4th on Broadway event, an Independence Day festival. The event is entirely free to the public, and is considered the largest free festival in . The day`s activities usually include a morning parade, a street fair along Broadway Avenue with food stalls and live bands, the Early Settlers` Luncheon, and an evening concert/fireworks program. Broadway Festivals Inc., the non-profit corporation which organizes the event, estimates a 2004 attendance of over 175,000 people.

Lubbock`s main newspaper is the ``Lubbock Avalanche-Journal``, which is owned by Morris Communications. Texas Tech University publishes a student-run daily newspaper called, ``The Daily Toreador``.

Attractions

The National Ranching Heritage Center, a museum of ranching history, is located in Lubbock. It features a number of authentic early Texas ranch buildings as well as a railroad depot and other historic buildings. There is also an extensive collection of weapons on display.

The Southwest Collection, an archive of the history of the region and its surroundings, is located on the campus of Texas Tech University, as are the Moody Planetarium and the Museum of Texas Tech University.



The Depot District, an area of the city dedicated to music and nightlife, is located in the old railroad depot area and boasts a number of theatres, upscale restaurants, and cultural attractions. The Depot District is also home to several shops, pubs and nightclubs, a radio station, a brewery, a magazine, a winery, a salon, and other establishments. Many of the buildings were remodeled from the original Fort Worth & Denver South Plains Railway Depot which originally stood on the site.The Buddy Holly Center, a museum highlighting the life and music of Buddy Holly, is also located in the depot district.

Lubbock is also home to the Silent Wings Museum. Located on North I-27, Silent Wings features photographs and artifacts from the World War II era glider pilots.

The Science Spectrum is an interactive museum and IMAX Dome theatre with a special focus on children and youth.

The American Wind Power Center and Windmill Museum houses over 100 historic windmills on 28 acres. Official Site

Lubbock is also home to Joyland Amusement Park, which is located in Mackenzie Park. Mackenzie Park also boasts one of the largest prairie dog colonies in the United States.

Sports

The Texas Tech University NCAA division I football (which has been a member of the Big 12 Conference since 1996) team and the men`s and women`s basketball teams are immensely popular. High school athletics (all sports) also feature prominently in the local culture. In addition, Lubbock is the home of the Cotton Kings, a hockey team in the Southwest Division of the Central Hockey League, and the Chaparrals of Lubbock Christian University. In 2007, the Lubbock Renegades began play as a member of the af2, a developmental league of the Arena Football League.

Non-college sports such as bicycling ( WTCA), disc golf, and in-line skating are popular.

National Register of Historic Places



Transportation



The city is set up on a simple grid plan. In the heart of the city, numbered streets run east-west and lettered avenues run north-south — the grid begins at Avenue A in the east and 1st street in the north. North of 1st street, where the numbers have essentially "run out," city planners chose to name streets alphabetically from the south to the north. When the north-south streets "ran out" at Avenue Z, the city chose the same method. (Note that there actually is no Avenue Z, it has been renamed "University Avenue" as it runs against Texas Tech University.)

Education

Public Schools

Most of Lubbock is served by the Lubbock Independent School District. Small portions of Lubbock extend into the neighboring districts of Frenship, Lubbock-Cooper, and Roosevelt.

Private Schools



Colleges and Universities



Referanslar

Dış bağlantılar



Kaynaklar

Vikipedi

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