# Ters Kare YasasДұ

Fizikte, ters kare kanunu belirli bir fiziksel miktar veya Еҹiddeti o fiziksel bГјyГјklГјДҹГјn kaynaДҹДұndan uzaklДұДҹДұn karesiyle ters orantДұ olduДҹunu belirten herhangi bir fiziksel kanundur.

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## Areas of application

In particular the inverse-square law applies in the following cases: doubling the distance between the light and the subject results in one quarter of the light hitting the subject.

### Gravitation

Gravitation refers to the attraction between two objects with mass. This law states:
The gravitation attraction force between two 'point masses' is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their separation distance. The force is always attractive and acts along the line joining them.
If we want to calculate the attraction between massive bodies, we need to add all the point-point attraction forces vectorially and the net attraction might not be exact inverse square. However, if the separation between the massive bodies is much larger compared to their sizes, then to a good approximation, it is reasonable to treat the masses as point mass while calculating the gravitational force.
This law was first suggested by Ismael Bullialdus but put on a firm basis by Isaac Newton after Robert Hooke proposed the idea in a letter to Newton. Hooke later accused Newton of plagiarism.

### Electrostatics

The force of attraction or repulsion between two electrically charged particles, in addition to being directly proportional to the product of the electric charges, is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them; this is known as Coulomb's law. The deviation of the exponent from 2 is less than one part in 1015.} This implies a limit on the photon rest mass.

### Acoustics

The inverse-square law is used in acoustics in measuring the sound intensity at a given distance from the source. Inverse-Square law for sound == Examples Electromagnetic radiation Let the total power radiated from a point source, e.g., an omnidirectional isotropic antenna, be $P \$. At large distances from the source (compared to the size of the source), this power is distributed over larger and larger spherical surfaces as the distance from the source increases. Since the surface area of a sphere of radius $r \$ is $A = 4 \pi r^2 \$, then intensity $I \$ of radiation at distance $r \$ is :$I = \frac = \frac. \,$ :$I \propto \frac \,$ :$\frac = \frac^2\right\}^2\right\} \,$ :$I_1 = I_ \cdot ^2\right\} \cdot \frac^2\right\} \,$ The energy or intensity decreases by a factor of ГӮВј as the distance $r$ is doubled, or measured in dB it would decrease by 6.02 dB. This is the fundamental reason why intensity of radiation, whether it is electromagnetic or acoustic radiation, follows the inverse-square behaviour, at least in the ideal 3 dimensional context (propagation in 2 dimensions would follow a just an inverse-proportional distance behaviour and propagation in one dimension, the plane wave, remains constant in amplitude even as distance from the source changes).

### Acoustics

In acoustics, the sound pressure of a spherical wavefront radiating from a point source decreases by 50% as the distance $r$ is doubled, or measured in dB it decreases by 6.02 dB. The behaviour is not inverse-square, but is inverse-proportional: :$p \propto \frac \,$ :$\frac = \frac \,$ :$p_1 = p_2 \cdot r_2 \cdot \frac \,$ However the same is also true for the component of particle velocity $v \,$ that is in-phase to the instantaneous sound pressure $p \,$. :$v \propto \frac \,$ Only in the near field the quadrature component of the particle velocity is 90ГӮВ° out of phase with the sound pressure and thus does not contribute to the time-averaged energy or the intensity of the sound. This quadrature component happens to be inverse-square. The sound intensity is the product of the RMS sound pressure and the RMS particle velocity (the in-phase component), both which are inverse-proportional, so the intensity follows an inverse-square behaviour as is also indicated above: :$I = p \cdot v \propto \frac. \,$ The inverse-square law pertained to sound intensity. Because sound pressures are more accessible to us, the same law can be called the "inverse-distance law".

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### Ters Kare YasasДұ ilgili konular

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Ters Kare YasasДұ