Sanatçı-taslak

Alessandro Algardi

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Sanatçı_bilgi_kutusu | fon_rengi = | isim = Alessandro Algardi | resim = | resim_genişliği = | resim_altı = | tam_ismi = Alessandro Algardi | doğum_tarihi = 27 Kasım 1598 | doğum_yeri = Bolonya | ölüm_tarihi = 10 Haziran 1654 | ölüm_yeri = Roma | milliyeti = İtalyan | alanı = Heykeltraş | eğitimi = | akımı = Barok | meşhur_eserleri = Papa Leo XI mezartaşı | etkilendikleri = | etkiledikleri = | ödülleri =



Alessandro Algardi (d. 31 Temmuz 1598 – ö. 10 Haziran 1654), İtalyan heykeltraş. Eserlerinin çoğunluğu Roma`dadır. Gian Lorenzo Bernini`nin en önemli rakibi olmuştur.

İlkyılları

Algardi Bolonya`da dünyaya gelmiştir. Küçük bir çocukken Agostino Carracci`nin yanında çırak olarak çalışmıştır. Heykele karşı yeteneği fark edilince kendi halinde bir sanatçı olan Gulio Cesare Conventi (1577-1640) için çalışmaya başlamıştır. 20 yaşına geldiğinde Mantua Dükü Ferdinando I tarafından görevlendirilmiş ve aynı zamanda yerli kuyumculara desen ve modeller tasarlamıştır. Kısa bir süre Venedik`te kaldıktan sonra 1625 yılında Mantua Dükü tarafından dönemin papasıın yeğeni Ludovico Cardinal Ludovisi ile tanıştırılarak Roma`ya gitmiştir. Ludovisi için zaman zaman eski heykeller onarmıştır. Bu restore edilmiş heykeller hala Palazzo Altemps`deki Bonacorsi-Ludovisi koleksiyonunun esas parçalarıdır. Heykel onarımı ve restorasyonu Bernini ve Ercole Ferrata da dahil olmak üzere dönemin heykeltraşları için yaygın bir işti.





Tomb of Pope Leo XI

Propelled by the Borghese and Barberini patronage, Gian Lorenzo Bernini and his studio garnered most of the major Roman sculptural commissions. For nearly a decade, Algardi struggled for recognition. In Rome he was aided by friends that included Pietro da Cortona and his fellow Bolognese, Domenichino. His early Roman commissions included terracotta and some marble portrait busts,<ref>His marble bust of Laudivio Zacchia, 1627, is in the Staatliche Museen, Berlin (illustrated)</ref> while he supported himself with small works like crucifixes.

tomb of Leo XI

Algardi`s first major commission came about in 1634, when Cardinal Ubaldini (Medici) contracted for a funeral monument for his great-uncle, Pope Leo XI, the thirdof the Medici popes, who had reigned for less than a month in 1605. The monument was started in 1640, and mostly completed by 1644. The arrangement mirrors the one designed by Bernini for the Tomb of Urban VIII (1627-8), with a central hieratic sculpture of the pope seated in full regalia and offering a hand of blessing, while at his feet, two allegrical female figures flank his sarcophagus. However, in Bernini`s tomb, the vigorous upraised arm and posture of the pope is counterbalanced by an active drama below, wherein the figures of ``Charity`` and ``Justice`` are either distracted by putti or lost in contemplation, while skeletal Death actively writes the epitaph. Algardi`s tomb is much less dynamic. The allegorical figures of ``Magnanimity`` and ``Liberality`` have an impassive, ethereal dignity. Some have identified the helmeted figure of ``Magnanimity`` with that of Athena and iconic images of Wisdom<ref>Harriet F. Senie, "The Tomb of Leo XI by Alessandro Algardi", ``The Art Bulletin`` (1978); p 90-95.</ref>. ``Liberality`` resembles Duquesnoy`s famous ``Santa Susanna``, but more elegant. The tomb is somberly monotone and lacks the polychromatic excitement that detracts from the elegiac mood of Urban VIII`s tomb<ref>Boucher p 121-2</ref>.

In 1635-38, Pietro Boncompagni commissioned from Algardi a colossal statue of Philip Neri with kneeling angels for Santa Maria in Vallicella, completed in 1640.<ref>Bruce Boucher, ``Earth and Fire: Italian Terracotta Sculpture from Donatello to Canova`` (Yale University Press) 2001:47.</ref> Immediately after this, Algardi produced an interactive sculptural group representing the beheading of Saint Paul with two figures: a kneeling, resigned saint and the executioner poised to strike the sword-blow, for San Paolo di Bologna. These works established his reputation. Like Bernini, they often conform with the Baroque aesthetic of depicting dramatic attitudes and emotional expressions, yet Algardi`s sculpture has a restraining sobriety in contrast to those of his rival.

Papal favour under Innocent X

With the accession of the Bolognese Pamphilj Pope Innocent X in 1644, both Barberini and his favorite artist, Bernini, fell into disrepute. Algardi, on the other hand, was embraced by the Pope<ref>Algardi`s official 1645 portrait statue of Innocent X is preserved in the Palazzo dei Conservatori in the Campidoglio.</ref> and the pope`s nephew, Camillo Pamphilj<ref>His portrait bust of Camillo Pamphili, 1647, is at The Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg illustration.</ref>. Algardi`s portraits were highly prized, and their formal severity contrasts with Bernini`s more vivacious images<ref> Compare the prior images with Bernini`s Urban VIII[1]</ref>. A large hieratic bronze of Innocent X by Algardi is now found in the Capitoline museum.

Algardi was not renown for architecture. He did help design the facade of Villa Doria Pamphili outside the San Pancrazio gate, a project in which he depended on the professional aid of the architect/engineer Girolamo Rainaldi, while Algardi and his studio executed the sculpture-encrusted fountains and other garden features, where much of his free-standing sculpture and bas-reliefs also remain. In 1650 Algardi met Diego Velasquez, who obtained commissions for Spain. There are four chimney-pieces by Algardi in the palace of Aranjuez, where the figures on the fountain of Neptune were also by him. The Augustine monastery at Salamanca contains the tomb of the count and countess de Monterey, another work by Algardi.

The ``Fuga d`Attila`` relief

Algardi`s large dramatic marble high-relief panel of Pope Leo and Attila <ref> Leo and Atilla`` relief</ref>(1646&ndash;53) for St Peter`s Basilica was widely admired in his day, and reinvigorated the use of such marble reliefs. There had been large marble reliefs used previously in Roman churches <ref>For example, Gian Lorenzo`s father, Pietro Bernini`s crowded ``Assumption of the Virgin`` for Santa Maria Maggiore(1606)</ref>, but for most patrons, sculpted marble altarpieces were far to costly. In this relief, the two principal figures, the stern and courageous pope and the dismayed and frightened Attila, surge and protrude from the center into three dimensions. Only they two see the descending angelic warriors rallying to the pope`s defense, while all others persist in the background reliefs, performing respective earthly duties. The subject was apt for a papal state seeking clout, since it depicts the historical legend when the greatest of Leonine Popes, with supernatural aide, deterred Huns from looting Rome. From a baroque standpoint it is a moment of divine intervention in the affairs of man. No doubt part of his patron`s message would be that all viewers would be sternly reminded of the papal capacity to invoke divine retribution against enemies. thumb|left| Lysippean torso, restored by Algardi as ``Hercules and the Hydra`` (Capitoline Museums)] Algardi died in Rome within a year of completing his famous relief, which was admired by contemporaries. In his later years Algardi controlled a large studio and amassed a great fortune. Algardi`s classicizing manner was carried on by pupils (including Ercole Ferrata and Domenico Guidi). Antonio Raggi initially trained with him. The latter two completed his design for an altarpiece titled the ``Vision of Saint Nicholas`` (San Nicola de Tolentino, Rome) using two separate marble pieces linked together in one event and place, yet successfully separating the divine and earthly spheres. Other lesser known assistants from his studio include Francesco Barrata, Girolamo Lucenti, and Giuseppe Perroni.

Critical assessment and legacy

Algardi was also known for his portraiture which shows an obsessive attention to details of psychologically revealing physiognomy in a sober but immediate naturalism, and minute attention to costume and draperies, such as in the busts of Laudivio Zacchia, Camillo Pamphilj, and of Muzio Frangipane and his two sons Lello and Roberto<ref> of Algardi`s children</ref>. In temperament, his style was more akin to the classicized and restrained Baroque of Duquesnoy than to the emotive works of other Baroque artists. From an artistic point of view, he was most successful in portrait-statues and groups of children, where he was obliged to follow nature most closely. His terracotta models, some of them finished works of art, were prized by collectors,<ref>An outstanding series of terracotta models is at the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg</ref>.

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