Bilimin Tarih Içindeki Gelişimi

Kısaca: Birçok sosyolog ve antropolog ilkel toplumlarının büyücülerini ilk bilimciler olarak kabul ederler. Ancak insanlık tarihinde bilimin başlangıcı olarak yazınında bulunduğu Mezopotamya ve Mısır uygarlığı kabul edilir. Bu dönemde özellikle geometri, matematik ve astronomi tarımsal üretimin gerek duyduğu bilgileri pratik olarak çözümlemiştir. Başlangıcında bilim pratik amaçlara dayanıyordu, bir de din adamları sınıfına. ...devamı ☟

Birçok sosyolog ve antropolog ilkel toplumlarının büyücülerini ilk bilimciler olarak kabul ederler. Ancak insanlık tarihinde bilimin başlangıcı olarak yazınında bulunduğu Mezopotamya ve Mısır uygarlığı kabul edilir. Bu dönemde özellikle geometri, matematik ve astronomi tarımsal üretimin gerek duyduğu bilgileri pratik olarak çözümlemiştir. Başlangıcında bilim pratik amaçlara dayanıyordu, bir de din adamları sınıfına. Yani bilgiler din adamlarının tekelinde bulunuyor bir anlamda ilkel büyücülük sürüyordu. Bölük pörçük bilgiler vardı ama belli bir sistematiği henüz yoktu bilimlerin.

Bilimsel çalışmaların pratik kaygıların ötesine geçişi; Ege uygarlığı ile gerçekleşti. Tam da Felsefenin doğduğu çağa. Bu dönemde matematik, geometri ve astronominin yanına fizik ve biyolojiyi ve simya biçimi ile kimyayı da eklemek olası. Ancak bu dönemin tabiat (doğa) bilimleri önemli metfizik izler taşımaktadır. Thales’in tüm evreni canlı sayması gibi.

Bu dönemde özellikle matematik bilimleri alanında bu günde geçerliliğini koruyan büyük başarılar elde edilmiştir. (Thales teoremi, Pisagor bağıntısı, Öklit Geometrisi, Arşimed yasası gibi)

Orta çağda her alanda olduğu gibi bilim alanında da dinin egemenliğini ve buna bağlı olarak da duraklamayı görürüz. Bilimin temel özelliği olan özgür düşünce ve eleştiri bir yana itilince bilimde iyice metafizik bataklığına sürüklenmiştir.

Hıristiyan orta çağının iyice tutuculaştığı dönemde, yeni din İslamiyet yeni olmanın getirdiği dinamikle bilime biraz daha hoşgörülü bakınca, bilimin merkezi yine orta doğuya kaymıştır. Ancak bu dönem İslam düşünürleri de tıpkı Hıristiyanlığın ilk döneminde olduğu gibi İdealist bir tavırla bilime ve felsefeye yaklaşarak, bir anlamda bir tekrardan öteye geçememişlerdir.

Bilimde ve insanlık tarihinde yenileşme ve ilerleme bir başka bahara kalmıştır.

15 ve 16 yüzyılda Reform ve Rönesans’la başlayan değişim süreci; 17 ve 18 inci yüzyılda Aydınlanma ile yükselen dinamik olmuş, 19 ve 20 nci yüzyılda sanayileşme ile değişim doruğa varmıştır. İçinde bulunduğumuz 21 inci yüz yıl ise bilimin altın çağı olacakmış gibi görünmektedir.

Kilisenin resmi ideolojisini sarsan ilk bulgular 16 ve 17 yüzyılda astronomiden gelmiştir. İlkçağ düşünürü Batlamyus’ un kilise tarafından tanrı söylemine dönüştürülen Dünya merkezli evren anlayışına karşı; Kopernik, Kepler, Bruno ve Galile Güneş merkezli evreni koyunca kızılca kıyamet kopmuştur. Bunun bedeli cezalandırılan bilim adamları tarafından ödeniyor görünse de en büyük bedeli etkisini yitiren metafizik anlayışlar ödemişlerdir.

Astronomiyi Fizik ve Biyoloji izlemiştir. 18 inci yüzyılda Newton’la fizik maddenin sakınımı yasasını açıklayarak hiçbir şeyin yoktan var olmadığını ve yok olmayacağını söylerken, Mendelson hem de kilisenin arka bahçesinde doğal olmayan yollardan yapay bezelyeler üretiyordu.

19 uncu yüzyıl insan bilimlerinin yüzyılı oldu. Psikoloji ve Sosyoloji pozitif birer bilim olarak mistik ve metafizikten uzaklaştılar.

20, yüzyıl bilimin dışındaki odaklardan çok kendi içinde hesaplaşması ile geçti. Einstein ve Plank’la Fizik Newton’u aştı.

Günümüz ise kimilerine göre iletişim ve teknolojinin kimilerine göre ise “genom”la biyolojinin çağı; ama daha da önemlisi bilimin altın çağı değil mi?

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Bilim Tarihi
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Bilim tarihi, hem doğa hem de toplumsal bilimler dahil olmak üzere bilimsel bilgi ve bilimin gelişiminin incelenmesidir. 18. yüzyıl ile 20. yüzyıl arası...

Bilim, Bilimsel Araştırma, Bilimsel yöntem, Matematik, Fizik, Kimya, Tıp, Biyoloji, Kuram, Deney, Elementler
Bilim felsefesi
3 yıl önce

yöntemlerin) anlamını, bilim alanı ve bilimsel bilginin nesnesini, bilimin gelişiminin anlamını, özet olarak bir bütün bilimin konumu, gelişimi ve -yapısını değerlendiren...

Bilim felsefesi, 17. yüzyıl felsefesi, 18. yüzyıl felsefesi, 19. yüzyıl felsefesi, 1960, 20. yüzyıl felsefesi, Ampirizm, Analitik felsefe, Antik Çağ felsefesi, Aristotales, Aydınlanma Çağı
Bilim
3 yıl önce

nicel ölçümlerin bilimin odağında olması, bilimin dünyanın önemli nitel açılarını göremediği eleştirilerine yol açmıştır. Bilimin icrasında, etik ve...

Bilimin tarih içindeki gelişimi, Bilim tarihi, Bilimsel yöntem, Ahlak, Arapça, Astronomi, Bilim Portalı, Bilimsel kuram, Dilbilgisi, Ekoloji, Fransızca, Mantık, Matematik, Deney
Bilim insanı
3 yıl önce

bilimin temeli olarak alınmış olan bazı bilim insanları, farklı birçok tarihsel figür niteliğinde tarih sahnesinde yer aldı. Bazı tarihçiler bilimin modern...

Malzeme Bilimi
3 yıl önce

olarak değişime uğradığı mekanizma olduğu için kinetik bilimin en önemli çalışma alanıdır. Kinetik bilimi materyallerin işlenmesine temeldir çünkü diğerlerine...

Malzeme bilimi, Teknoloji, Askeri, Ağaç İşleri Endüstri Mühendisliği, Bilgi, Bilgisayar Mühendisliği, Bilim, Biyomedikal Mühendisliği, Biyomühendislik, Bomba, Deniz Teknolojisi Mühendisliği
Sanat tarihi
3 yıl önce

Sanat tarihi, en yalın haliyle görsel sanatların tarihsel evrimini inceleyen bilim dalıdır. Bir başka tanım vermek gerekirse tarih koşullarından doğan...

Sanat tarihi, Görsel sanatlar
Siyaset Bilimi
3 yıl önce

"siyaset bilimi" konuları, siyaset felsefesi içinde incelenmiştir. Modern disiplinin içinde ahlakî felsefe, siyasi ekonomi, siyasi teoloji, tarih, olması...

Siyaset Bilimi, Bilim, Taslak, TBMM, Meclis, Ahlak, Halk, Parti, Parlemento
Bilişsel Bilim
3 yıl önce

kullanıldığını gösteriyor. Bilişsel bilim bilişe dair  geniş bir yelpazedeki konuları kapsıyor. Fakat, bilişsel bilimin, zihnin doğası ve süreçleriyle ilgili...

Bilişsel Bilim, Alan Turing, Daniel Dennett, Daniel Kahneman, Dilbilim, Douglas Hofstadter, Felsefe, Noam Chomsky, Nöroloji, Yapay zekâ, Marvin Minsky