Bamyan Buda heykelleri

Bamiyan Budaları (``tandis-ha-ye buda dar bamiyaan``) olarak bilinen, Orta Afganistan`da, Kabil`in 230 km kuzey batısında, Bamyan vadisinde bulunan sarp kayalıklara oyularak yapılmış devasa iki adet heykeldir. 2500 metre yüksekliğindeki Hint-Yunan stilindeki heykellerin inşaası 6.yüzyılda tamamlanmıştır.

Bamyan Buda heykelleri

Bamiyan Budaları (``tandis-ha-ye buda dar bamiyaan``) olarak bilinen, Orta Afganistan`da, Kabil`in 230 km kuzey batısında, Bamyan vadisinde bulunan sarp kayalıklara oyularak yapılmış devasa iki adet heykeldir. 2500 metre yüksekliğindeki Hint-Yunan stilindeki heykellerin inşaası 6.yüzyılda tamamlanmıştır.

Çeviri

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The main bodies were hewn directly from the sandstone cliffs, but details were modeled in mud mixed with straw, coated with stucco. This coating, practically all of which was worn away long ago, was painted to enhance the expressions of the faces, hands and folds of the robes; the larger one was painted carmine red and the smaller one was painted multiple colors.<ref name="gall1">cite news | last = Gall| first = Carlotta|date=2006-12-06| title = From Ruins of Afghan Buddhas, a History Grows| publisher = ``The New York Times``| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/06/world/asia/06budd.html?pagewanted=2&_r=2&th&emc=th| accessdate = 2008-01-06</ref> The lower parts of the statues` arms were constructed from the same mud-straw mix while supported on wooden armatures. It is believed that the upper parts of their faces were made from great wooden masks or casts. The rows of holes that can be seen in photographs were spaces that held wooden pegs which served to stabilize the outer stucco.

They were destroyed in 2001 by the Taliban. Japan and Switzerland, among others, have pledged support for the rebuilding of the statues.

Tarihçe

450px|thumb|Bamiyan vadisindeki Buda heykelleri Bamyan lies on the Silk Road, a caravan route linking the markets of China & India with those of Central Asia, the Middle East, and Europe. Until the twelfth century AD, Bamiyan was part of the Indian kingdom of Gandhara. It was the site of several Buddhist and Hindu monasteries, and a thriving center for religion, philosophy, and Indo-Greek art. It was a Buddhist religious site from the second century up to the time of the Islamic invasion in the ninth century.

Monks at the monasteries lived as hermits in small caves carved into the side of the Bamyan cliffs. Many of these monks embellished their caves with religious statuary and elaborate, brightly-colored frescoes.

The two most prominent statues were the giant, standing Buddhas, measuring 55 and 37 metres (180 and 121 feet) high respectively, the largest examples of standing Buddha carvings in the world. They were perhaps the most famous cultural landmarks of the region and the site was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site along with the surrounding cultural landscape and archaeological remains of the Bamyan Valley.

The smaller of the two statues was built in AD 507, the larger in 554.<ref>cite news | last = Gall| first = Carlotta|date=2006-12-05| title = Afghans consider rebuilding Bamiyan Buddhas| publisher = ``International Herald Tribune``| url = http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/12/05/news/buddhas.php?page=1| accessdate = 2008-01-06</ref> The statues are believed to have been built by the Kushans and Indo-Hephthalites (both eastern Indo-European peoples) at the heyday of their empires. The above mentioned groups were the ancestors of the Hazaras, the most persecuted ethnic group in Afghanistan.<ref>cite web | last = Mohammadi| first = Ishaq| title = A Profile On Bamyan Civilization| publisher = hazara.net|date=1999| url = http://hazara.net/hazara/geography/Buddha/buddha.html| accessdate = 2008-01-06</ref> Physical and facial features of the Hazara are greatly similar to those in the frescoes found in the ancient relics and caves. Furthermore, considering the historical importance of the Buddhas of Bamiyan, unsuccessful claims over the Buddha`s heritage have been made by all the ethnic groups in Afghanistan.

The Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hsüan-tsang (Xuanzang) passed through the area around AD 630 and described Bamiyan as a flourishing Buddhist center "with more than ten monasteries and more than a thousand monks". He also noted that both Buddha figures were "decorated with gold and fine jewels" (Wriggins, 1995). Xuan Zang`s account is intriguing as he mentions a third, even larger, reclining statue of Buddha;<ref name="gall1"/> although it is generally believed destroyed, some archaeological expeditions are searching for it.

A monumental sitting Buddha similar in style to those at Bamiyan still exists in the Bingling Temple caves in China`s Gansu province.

Heykellere saldırıların tarihçesi

12.Yüzyıl-20.Yüzyıl

When Mahmud of Ghazni conquered Afghanistan and part of west India in the twelfth century, the Buddhas and frescoes were spared from destruction though Buddhist monasteries and other artifacts were looted or destroyed. Nadir Shah had cannon fire directed at the statues. But over the centuries the statues had largely been left untouched.

2001 başları-Taliban Dönemi

In July 1999, Mullah Mohammed Omar issued a decree in favor of the preservation of the Bamyan Buddhas. Because Afghanistan`s Buddhist population no longer existed, which removed the possibility of the statues being worshipped, he added: "The government considers the Bamyan statues as an example of a potential major source of income for Afghanistan from international visitors. The Taliban states that Bamyan shall not be destroyed but protected."<ref>cite news | last = Harding| first = Luke|date=2001-03-03| title = How the Buddha got his wounds| publisher = ``The Guardian``| url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4145138,00.html| accessdate = 2008-01-06</ref>

Afghanistan`s radical clerics began a campaign to crack down on "un-Islamic" segments of Afghan society. The Taliban soon banned all forms of imagery, music and sports, including television, in accordance with what they considered a strict interpretation of Islamic law.<ref>cite web | title = The Destruction of Statues Displayed in an Islamic State| publisher = Ask-Imam.com| first = Moulana Imraan| last= Vawda |url = http://www.islam.tc/ask-imam/view.php?q=3436| accessdate = 2008-01-06</ref>

In March 2001, according to Agence France Presse in Kabul, a decree declared, "Based on the verdict of the clerics and the decision of the Supreme Court of the Islamic Emirate (of Afghanistan) all the statues around Afghanistan must be destroyed. All the statues in the country should be destroyed because these statues have been used as idols and worshipped by people. Only God, the Almighty, deserves to be worshiped, not anyone or anything else."Fact|date=January 2008

Information and Culture Minister Qadratullah Jamal told Associated Press of a decision by 400 religious clerics from across Afghanistan declaring the Buddhist statues against the tenets of Islam. "They came out with a consensus that the statues were against Islam," said Jamal.

According to UNESCO Director-General Koí¯chiro Matsuura, a meeting of ambassadors from the 54 member states of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) was conducted. All OIC states - including Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, three countries that officially recognised the Taliban government - joined the protest to spare the monuments.<ref>cite news |date=2001-03-03| title = World appeals to Taleban to stop destroying statues| publisher = CNN| url = http://archives.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/central/03/03/afghan.buddhas.03/index.html| accessdate = 2008-01-06</ref> A statement issued by the ministry of religious affairs of Taliban regime justified the destruction as being in accordance with Islamic law.<ref>cite news |date=2001-03-12| title = Destruction of Giant Buddhas Confirmed| publisher = ``AFP``| url = http://www.beliefnet.com/story/70/story_7096_1.html| accessdate = 2008-01-06</ref> Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates would later condemn the destruction as "savage".Fact|date=January 2008

Dinamitleme ve tahribat, Mart 2001

thumb|right|300px|A day in the destruction of the Buddhas of Bamyan, March 21 2001|Photograph of a statue being dynamited on March 21,


The statues were destroyed by dynamite over several weeks, starting in early March.

On March 6, 2001 ``The Times`` quoted Mullah Mohammed Omar as stating, "Muslims should be proud of smashing idols. It has given praise to God that we have destroyed them." He had clearly changed his position from being in favor of the statues to being against them. During a March 13 interview for Japan`s Mainichi Shimbun, Afghan Foreign Minister Wakil Ahmad Mutawakel stated that the destruction was anything but a retaliation against the international community for economic sanctions: "We are destroying the Buddha statues in accordance with Islamic law and it is purely a religious issue".

On March 18, ``The New York Times`` reported that a Taliban envoy said the Islamic government made its decision in a rage after a foreign delegation offered money to preserve the ancient works. The report also added, however, that other reports "have said the religious leaders were debating the move for months, and ultimately decided that the statues were idolatrous and should be obliterated."<ref>cite news | last = Crossette| first = Barbara|date=2001-03-19| title = Taliban Explains Buddha Demolition| publisher = ``The New York Times``| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2001/03/19/world/19TALI.html?ex=1142571600&en=e5ba6c267eada53a&ei=5070| accessdate = 2008-01-06</ref>

Then Taliban ambassador-at-large, Sayed Rahmatullah Hashemi, said that the destruction of the statues was carried out by the Head Council of Scholars after a single Swedish monuments expert proposed to restore the statues` heads. Hashimi is reported as saying: "When the Afghani head council asked them to provide the money to feed the children instead of fixing the statues, they refused and said, `No, the money is just for the statues, not for the children`. Herein, they made the decision to destroy the statues".<ref>cite news | last = Kassaimah| first = Sahar|date=2001-01-12| title = Afghani Ambassador Speaks At USC| publisher = IslamOnline| url = http://www.islamonline.net/english/news/2001-03/13/article12.shtml| accessdate = 2008-01-06</ref>

Tahribatın sonucu

On April 19, 2004, in an interview to a Pakistani journalist Mohammad Shehzad, Mullah Mohammad Omar said the following, "I did not want to destroy the Bamyan Buddha. In fact, some foreigners came to me and said they would like to conduct the repair work of the Bamyan Buddha that had been slightly damaged due to rains. This shocked me. I thought, these callous people have no regard for thousands of living human beings &mdash; the Afghans who are dying of hunger, but they are so concerned about non-living objects like the Buddha. This was extremely deplorable. That is why I ordered its destruction. Had they come for humanitarian work, I would have never ordered the Buddhas` destruction."Fact|date=January 2008

Deleted image removed: thumb|right|200px|Calendar commemorating the destruction --> The Islamist Taliban government decreed that the statues, which had survived intact for over 1,500 years, were idolatrous and un-Islamic. During the destruction, Taliban Information Minister Qudratullah Jamal lamented that, "this work of destruction is not as simple as people might think. You can`t knock down the statues by shelling as both are carved into a cliff; they are firmly attached to the mountain."Fact|date=January 2008 The two largest Buddhas faced dynamite and tank barrages and were demolished after almost a month of intensive bombardment.

A Swiss documentary reported that locals claimed to have seen Pakistani and Saudi engineers on site to help with the destruction of the statues.<ref>cite news | last = Hasan| first = Khalid|date=2006-03-19| title = Swiss documentary on Afghanistan: Pakistani, Saudi engineers helped destroy Buddhas| publisher = ``Daily Times ``| url = http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006\03\19\story_19-3-2006_pg7_38| accessdate = 2008-01-06</ref> A Pakistani charity designated a terrorist organization by the US Treasury Department,<ref>http://www.ustreas.gov/offices/enforcement/key-issues/protecting/docs/designationsum-.pdf</ref> Al Rasheed Trust, based in Karachi, had published a special calendar with photographs to commemorate the destruction.

Restorasyon vaadleri

Though the figures of the two large Buddhas are almost completely destroyed, their outlines and some features are still recognizable within the recesses. It is also still possible for visitors to explore the monks` caves and the passages which connect them. As part of the international effort to rebuild Afghanistan after the Taliban war, the Government of Japan and several other organizations, among them the Afghanistan Institute in Bubendorf, Switzerland, along with the ETH in Zurich, have committed themselves to rebuilding the two largest Buddhas; anastylosis is one technique being considered.

2002`deki gelişmeler

GBA8.jpg|thumb|right|Büyük Buda heykeli, 1963thumb|Yok edilen Büyük Buda heykelinin boş kalan nişi, 2005 In May 2002, a mountainside sculpture of the Buddha was carved out of a mountain in Sri Lanka. It was designed to closely resemble one of the Buddhas of Bamyan.

In December 2004, Japanese researchers discovered that the wall paintings at Bamyan were actually painted between the fifth and the ninth centuries, rather than the sixth to eighth centuries as previously believed. The discovery was made by analysing radioactive isotopes contained in straw fibers found beneath the paintings. Further discoveries are expected to be made after comparing the paintings` dates and styles.

The Afghan government has commissioned Japanese artist Hiro Yamagata to recreate the Bamyan Buddhas using fourteen laser systems to project the images of the Buddhas onto the cliff where they once stood. The laser systems will be solar-powered and wind-powered. The project, which will cost an estimated $9 million, is currently pending UNESCO approval. If approved, the project is estimated to be completed by June 2012.

In September 2005, Mawlawi Mohammed Islam Mohammadi, Taliban governor of Bamyan province at the time of the destruction and widely seen as responsible for its occurrence, was elected to the Afghan Parliament. On January 26, 2007, he was gunned down in Kabul on the way to prayers.Fact|date=January 2008

Swiss filmmaker Christian Frei made a 95-minute documentary entitled ``The Giant Buddhas`` (released in March 2006) on the statues, the international reactions to it, and an overview of the controversy. The movie makes the controversial claim (quoting a local Afghan) that the destruction was ordered by Osama Bin Laden and that initially, Mullah Omar and the Afghans in Bamyan had opposed the destruction.<ref>cite news |date=2006-03-28| title = Laden ordered Bamiyan Buddha destruction| publisher = ``The Times of India``| url = http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1466974.cms| accessdate = 2008-01-06</ref>

In the summer of 2006, Afghan officials were deciding the timetable for the re-construction of the statues. The mullahs in the province have stated that the destruction was an atrocity and the statues deserve restoration. While they wait for the Afghan government and international community to decide whether to rebuild them, a $1.3 million UNESCO-funded project is sorting out the chunks of clay and plaster - ranging from boulders weighing several tons to fragments the size of tennis balls - and sheltering them from the elements.

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