Demokrasi İndeksi

The Economist'deki bir çalışma, 167 ülkede demokrasinin durumunu sınadı ve beş genel kategoride odaklanan demokrasinin bir indeksle bunu ölçmeyi denedi.Kategoriler;

Demokrasi İndeksi

Başka dilden çevrilmektethumb|450px|Democracy index map, with brighter colours representing more democratic countries. Countries with DI below 2 are black. ``The Economistdeki bir çalışma, 167 ülkede demokrasinin durumunu sınadı ve beş genel kategoride odaklanan demokrasinin bir indeksle bunu ölçmeyi denedi; free and fair election process, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation and political culture. Sweden scored a total of 9.88 on the scale of ten which was the highest result, North Korea scored the lowest with 1.03. <ref> Laza Kekic. "A pause in democracy`s march" (From The World in 2007 print edition)</ref><ref> Economist Intelligence Unit democracy index 2006 (PDF file)</ref> "Full democracies", "Flawed Democracies", and "Hybrid Regimes" are considered to be democracies and "Authoritarian Regimes" are considered to be dictatorial.

Methodology

As described in the report, the democracy index is a kind of weighted average based on the answers of 60 questions, each one with either two or three permitted alternative answers. Most answers are "experts` assessments"; the report does not indicate what kinds of experts, nor their number, nor whether the experts are employees of The Economist or e.g. independent scolars, nor the nationalities of the experts. Some answers are provided by public opinion surveys from the respective countries. "In the case of countries for which survey results are missing, survey results for similar countries and expert assesments are used in order to fill in gaps."

The questions are distributed into the five categories enumerated ``supra``. Each answer is translated to a mark, either 0 or 1, or for the three answer alternative questions, 0.5. With the exceptions ``infra``, seemingly, the sums are added within each category, multiplied by ten, and divided by the total number of questions within the category. There are a few modifying dependencies, which are explained much more precisely than the main rule procedures. In a few cases, an answer yielding zero for one question voids another question; e.g., if the elections for national legislation and head of government are not considered free (question 1), then the the next question, ``"Are elections... fair?"`` is not considered, but automatically marked zero. Likewise, there are a few questions considered so important that a low score on them yields a penalty on the total score sum for their respective categories, namely
  1. "Whether national elections are free and fair";
  2. "The security of voters";
  3. "The influence of foreign powers on government";
  4. "The capability of the civil servants to implement politics".
The five category indices, which all are listed in the report, then are averaged to find the democracy index for a given country. Finally, the the democracy index, rounded to one decimal, decides the classification of the country, as quoted:
  1. Full democracies-scores of 8-10.
  2. Flawed democracies-scores of 6 to 7.9.
  3. Hybrid regimes-scores of 4 to 5.9.
  4. Authoritarian regimes-scores below 4.


The report discusses other indices of democracy, as defined e.g. by Freedom House, and argues for some of the choices made by the team from The Economist. E.g., in this comparison, a higher emphasis has been put on the public opinion and attitudes, as measured by public surveys, but on the other hand, economic living standard has not been weighted as one criterion of democracy (as seemingly some other investigators have done).

There is no indication whatsoever that this report has been presented or is planned to be presented in any academic context, or in any manner has been checked by or will be checked by a peer review.

January 2007 ranking



a„– Country Index Category
| flag|Sweden || 9.88 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Iceland || 9.71 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Netherlands || 9.66 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Norway || 9.55 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Denmark || 9.52 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Finland || 9.25 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Luxembourg || 9.10 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Australia || 9.09 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Canada || 9.07 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Switzerland || 9.02 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Republic of Ireland || 9.01 || Functioning democracy
| flag|New Zealand || 9.01 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Germany || 8.82 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Austria || 8.69 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Malta || 8.39 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Spain || 8.34 || Functioning democracy
| flag|United States || 8.22 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Czech Republic || 8.17 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Portugal || 8.16 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Belgium || 8.15 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Japan || 8.15 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Greece || 8.13 || Functioning democracy
| flag|United Kingdom || 8.08 || Functioning democracy
| flag|France || 8.07 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Mauritius || 8.04 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Costa Rica || 8.04 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Slovenia || 7.96 || Functioning democracy
| flag|Uruguay || 7.96 || Functioning democracy
| flag|South Africa || 7.91 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Chile || 7.89 || Flawed democracy
| flag|South Korea || 7.88 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Taiwan || 7.82 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Estonia || 7.74 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Italy || 7.73 || Flawed democracy
| flag|India || 7.68 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Botswana || 7.60 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Cyprus || 7.60 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Hungary || 7.53 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Cape Verde || 7.43 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Lithuania || 7.43 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Slovakia || 7.40 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Brazil || 7.38 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Latvia || 7.37 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Panama || 7.35 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Jamaica || 7.34 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Poland || 7.30 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Israel || 7.28 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Trinidad and Tobago || 7.18 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Bulgaria || 7.10 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Romania || 7.06 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Croatia || 7.04 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Ukraine || 6.94 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Mexico || 6.67 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Argentina || 6.63 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Serbia || 6.62 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Mongolia || 6.60 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Sri Lanka || 6.58 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Montenegro || 6.57 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Namibia || 6.54 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Papua New Guinea || 6.54 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Suriname || 6.52 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Moldova || 6.50 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Lesotho || 6.48 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Philippines || 6.48 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Indonesia || 6.41 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Timor-Leste || 6.41 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Colombia || 6.40 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Republic of Macedonia || 6.33 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Honduras || 6.25 || Flawed democracy
| flag|El Salvador || 6.22 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Paraguay || 6.16|| Flawed democracy
| flag|Benin || 6.16 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Guyana || 6.15 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Dominican Republic || 6.13 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Bangladesh || 6.11 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Peru || 6.11 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Guatemala || 6.07 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Hong Kong || 6.03 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Palestine || 6.01 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Mali || 5.99 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Malaysia || 5.98 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Bolivia || 5.98 || Flawed democracy
| flag|Albania || 5.91 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Singapore || 5.89 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Madagascar || 5.82 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Lebanon || 5.82 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Bosnia and Herzegovina || 5.78 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Turkey || 5.70 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Nicaragua || 5.68 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Thailand || 5.67 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Fiji || 5.66 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Ecuador || 5.64 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Venezuela || 5.42 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Senegal || 5.37 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Ghana || 5.35 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Mozambique || 5.28 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Zambia || 5.25 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Liberia || 5.22 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Tanzania || 5.18 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Uganda || 5.14 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Kenya || 5.08 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Russia || 5.02 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Malawi || 4.97 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Georgia || 4.90 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Cambodia || 4.77 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Ethiopia || 4.72 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Burundi || 4.51 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Gambia || 4.39 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Haiti || 4.19 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Armenia || 4.15 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Kyrgyzstan || 4.08 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Iraq || 4.01 || Hybrid regime
| flag|Pakistan Pakistan || 3.92 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Jordan Ürdün || 3.92 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Comoros || 3.90 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Morocco Fas || 3.90 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Egypt Mısır || 3.90 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Rwanda Ruanda || 3.82 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Burkina Faso || 3.72 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Kazakhstan Kazakistan || 3.62 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Sierra Leone || 3.57 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Niger || 3.54 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Bahrain || 3.53 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Cuba || 3.52 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Nigeria || 3.52 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Nepal || 3.42 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Cí´te d`Ivoire || 3.38 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Belarus || 3.34 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Azerbaijan || 3.31 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Cameroon || 3.27 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Congo || 3.19 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Algeria || 3.17 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Mauritania || 3.12 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Kuwait || 3.09 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Afghanistan || 3.06 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Tunisia || 3.06 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Yemen || 2.98 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|China || 2.97 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Swaziland || 2.93 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Iran || 2.93 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Sudan || 2.90 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Qatar || 2.78 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Oman || 2.77 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Democratic Republic of the Congo || 2.76 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Vietnam || 2.75 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Gabon || 2.72 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Bhutan || 2.62 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Zimbabwe || 2.62 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Tajikistan || 2.45 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|United Arab Emirates || 2.42 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Angola || 2.41 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Djibouti || 2.37 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Syria || 2.36 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Eritrea || 2.31 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Laos || 2.10 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Equatorial Guinea || 2.09 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Guinea || 2.02 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Guinea-Bissau || 2.00 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Saudi Arabia || 1.92 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Uzbekistan || 1.85 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Libya || 1.84 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Turkmenistan || 1.83 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Myanmar || 1.77 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Togo || 1.75 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Chad || 1.65 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|Central African Republic || 1.61 || Authoritarian regime
| flag|North Korea || 1.03 || Authoritarian regime


References

reflist

Dış bağlantılar

  • "The Economist Intelligence Unit`s index of democracy" [1]




Demokrasi Ülke listeleri

Demokratieindex Democracy Index Democracy Index Chỉ số Dan chủ

Kaynaklar

Vikipedi

İlgili konuları ara

Yanıtlar